Sea freight is the rental of a cargo space on board a sea-going vessel. The cost of freight is based on the terms of the shipping contract between the charterer or shipper of the cargo and the line operator. The terms of transportation are governed by the Incoterms rules.
Services that are included in the cost of sea freight depend on the conditions under which the container shipping contract was concluded between the shipper and the shipowner. The list of services is discussed at the stage of concluding a contract for sea transportation.
The main service for which freight is collected is directly sea transportation itself. The second most significant service included in the freight is loading and unloading of the container at the port of departure and the port of arrival, respectively. In marine terminology, transshipment in the port is called THC (terminal handling charges).
Abbreviation and Mandatory Transportation Services
Sea lines use the following abbreviations to indicate the terms of shipment:
FIOS (Free in/out) - loading and unloading at the expense of the shipper/consignee;
- FILO (Free in / Liner out) - loading at the expense of the shipper, unloading at the expense of the line;
- LIFO (Liner in/Free out) - loading at the expense of the line, unloading at the expense of the shipper/consignee;
- LILO (Liner in/out) - loading and unloading at the expense of the line - full liner terms.
Mandatory services that can also be included by the sea line in the cost of freight:
- issue of printed versions of bills of lading;
- registration of documents at the port of departure;
- registration of documents at the port of arrival.
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